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Bandha is a Sanskrit word related to our English words "band","bind", "bond" and "bound." They are particular actions involving pressure or strain on the muscles. Each bandha is a lock, meaning a closing off of part of the interior body. These locks are used in various pranayama and asana practices to tone, cleanse and energize the interior body and organs.
The three important bandhas are...

Jalandhara Bandha - Chin Lock

"Jal" means "Net", in this case, net of Nadis (energy channels) and the word "Dhar" means "to stop or to hold" the flow of the fluid (Amrut), flowing through the nadis. This bandha is also known as "chin lock"

Moola Bandha - Anal Lock

"Moola" means "root", "basis", "source" or "cause" in Sanskrit. It also means anal region. 'Moola Bandha' means 'Anal Lock'

Uddiyana Bandha - Abdominal Lock

"Uddiyana" means 'flying up', and 'Bandha', means 'lock' or 'tie' in Sanskrit. Uddiyana is the 'flying up' of the diaphragm in the thorax and the simultaneous pulling back of the abdominal viscera above and below the navel towards the spine.

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