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In March 2004, the Bird political dynasty came to an end when labor activist Baldwin Spencer defeated Lester Bird, who had been prime minister since 1994. In 2005, income tax, which had been eliminated in 1975, was reintroduced to help alleviate Antigua's deficit. On July 17, 2007, Louise Lake-Tack became the first woman governor-general of Antigua and Barbuda.

GeographyAntigua, the larger of the two main islands, is 108 sq mi (280 sq km). The island dependencies of Redonda (an uninhabited rocky islet) and Barbuda (a coral island formerly known as Dulcina) are 0.5 sq mi (1.30 sq km) and 62 sq mi (161 sq km), respectively.  GovernmentConstitutional monarchy. HistoryThe island of Antigua was explored by Christopher Columbus in 1493 and

Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952) Governor-General: Louise Lake-Tack (2007) Prime Minister: Baldwin Spencer (2004) Total area: 170 sq mi (440 sq km) Population (2009 est.): 85,632 (growth rate: 1.3%); birth rate: 16.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 16.2/1000; life expectancy: 74.76; density per sq mi: 409 Capital and largest city (2003 est.):

President: José Eduardo dos Santos (1979) Prime Minister: Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos (2003)  Total area: 481,350 sq mi (1,246,699 sq km) Population (2009 est.): 12,799,293 (growth rate: 2.0%); birth rate: 43.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 180.2/1000; life expectancy: 38.2; density per sq mi: 25 Capital and largest city (2003 est.):


On Feb. 22, 2002, government troops killed Jonas Savimbi, and six weeks later, on April 4, rebel leaders signed a cease-fire deal with the government, signaling the end of 30 years of civil war. While peace finally seemed secure, more than a half-million Angolans were faced with starvation. Angola is the second-largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its people are

Following World War II, independence movements began but were sternly suppressed by Portuguese military forces. The major nationalist organizations were the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), a Marxist party; National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA); and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). After 14 years of war,

GeographyAngola, more than three times the size of California, extends for more than 1,000 mi (1,609 km) along the South Atlantic in southwest Africa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of Congo are to the north and east, Zambia is to the east, and Namibia is to the south. A plateau averaging 6,000 ft (1,829 m) above sea level rises abruptly from the coastal
 

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