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On an H-R diagram, the brightest stars are at the top and the hottest stars are at the left. Hertzsprung and Russell found that most stars fell on a diagonal line across the H-R diagram from upper left to lower right. This line is called the main sequence.

The diagonal line of main-sequence stars indicates that temperature and brightness of these stars are directly related. The hotter a main-sequence star is, the brighter it is. The Sun is a main-sequence star, located in about the middle of the graph. More faint, cool stars exist than hot, bright ones, so the Sun is brighter and hotter than most of the stars in the universe.

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